Stalin’s Order #227: Unarmed Human-shields used as defense – Order #270: “No Surrender…Fight to the End” or be shot by Command.

“NOT A SINGLE STEP BACK” Stalin’s Order No. 227


“You have to be brave to be a coward in the Red Army” ~ Joseph Stalin

 


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Soviet Stamp: “Not one step backwards”

Approximately 8.7 million Red Army soldiers died during WWII. A great majority of these soldiers were not willing, patriotic Russians, but rather Ukrainian, Belorussian and many members of other nationalities which came (usually by force) from all over the Soviet occupied empire and the Gulag Death Camp system.

Soviet Russia defeated Germany because it had many more men and absolutely no scruples in regard to how many would die, in order to defeat the Third Reich.


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Stalin declared in the Preamble of the August 1942 Order No. 227 – that the ‘Iron Law’ of discipline for every officer, soldier, political officer should be; “Not a Single Step Back” without order from higher command.
Company, battalion, regiment and division Commanders, as well as the Commissars and political Officers of corresponding ranks who retreat, without order from above, are Traitors of the Motherland. They should be treated as Traitors of the Motherland.


Although Penal Battalions (shtrafbats) were used prior to this August 1942 order, it introduced severe disciplinary punishments, including summary execution and forcing disgraced Officers to the Front-lines with other prisoners, all being unarmed.

Under Stalins Order No. 227, the idea for fighting Germans was, to throw as many men at the German defenses, until the Germans, literally, ran out of bullets. Among the armed soldiers, were hundreds of ‘Unarmed Penal Battalions’ (initially consisting of 800 Soviet Prisoners per Battalion) sent to charge the German lines.


Section 1 (c) of the Supreme Command Order 227;

“These battalions should be put on the more difficult sections of a Front, thus giving them an opportunity to redeem their crimes against the Motherland by blood.”

Stalin’s blindness to Hitler’s pre-invasion manoeuvres, which allowed the Germans to occupy Russia’s industrial heartland… it was only then, with reluctance, did Stalin shift more of his attention from killing Russian citizens to killing more Germans. These military tactics, if they can be dignified with such a term, in effect were, “Killing two birds with one stone.”

All Red Army soldiers (unarmed or not) who showed any sign of resistance to these inhumane tactics, was shot on the spot. In fact, trailing the Red Army was the NKVD army, which numbered several hundreds of thousands, and its sole purpose was to keep the Red army advancing forward, at any cost… the ultimate cost, was death by purportedly, fellow countrymen.


Sections 2, (a) and (b)

2. “The Military Councils of armies and first of all army commanders should:

a) In all circumstances remove from offices corps and army commanders and commissars, who have allowed their troops to retreat at will without authorisation by the army command, and send them to the Military Councils of the Fronts for court-martial;

b) Form 3 to 5 well-armed guard (barrage) units (zagradotryads), deploy them in the rear of unstable divisions and oblige them to execute panic-mongers and cowards at site in case of panic and chaotic retreat…”


Section 3 (b);

b) “Provide all possible help and support to the guards (barrage) units (zagradotryads) of the army in their work of strengthening discipline and order in the units.

This order is to be read aloud in all companies, troops, batteries, squadrons, teams and staffs.”

The People’s Commissar for Defense
JOSEPH STALIN



Stalin’s Order #270



Order of the Supreme Command of the Red Army on August 16, 1941, No. 270; “On the responsibility of the military for surrender and leaving weapons to the enemy”

Order No. 270 was issued by Stalin on 16 August 1941, which commanded the Red Army personnel to “Fight to the Last.” This banned army personnel from surrendering and set out severe penalties for deserters and senior officers regarded as derelicting their duties.

The first article directed that any Commanders or Commissars “tearing away their insignia and deserting or surrendering” should be considered Malicious Deserters. The order required superiors to shoot these Deserters on the spot. In the event they did desert or surrender, their family members were then subjected to arrest too.

I Order (Stalin)
“That commanders and political officers who, during combat tear off their insignia and desert to the rear or surrender to the enemy, be considered malicious deserters whose families are subject to arrest as a family, for violation of an oath and betrayal of their homeland.

All Higher commanders and commissars are required to shoot on the spot any such deserters from among command personnel…”

The second article demanded that encircled soldiers must use every possibility to fight on, and to demand that their commanders organise the fighting; according to the order, anyone attempting to surrender instead of fighting must be killed and their family members deprived of any state welfare and assistance.
The order also required division commanders to demote and to shoot on the spot those commanders who failed to command a battle directly in the battlefield.

“…Encircled units and formations to selflessly fight to the last, to protect material like the apple of their eye, to break through from the rear of enemy troops, defeating the fascist dogs.

That every soldier is obliged, regardless of his or her position, to demand that their superiors, if part of their unit is surrounded, to fight to the end, to break through, and if a superior or a unit of the Red Army – instead of organizing resistance to the enemy – prefers to become a prisoner, they should be destroyed by all means possible on land and air, and their families deprived of public benefits and assistance.

Division commanders and commissars are obliged to immediately shift from their posts commanders of battalions and regiments, who hide in crevices during battle and those who fear directing a fight on the battlefield; to reduce their positions, as imposters, to be demoted to the ranks, and when necessary to shoot them on the spot, bringing to their place bold and courageous people, from among junior command personnel or those among the ranks of the Red Army who have excelled”

This order is to be read in all companies, squadrons, batteries, teams and staffs.

Headquarters of the Supreme Command, Red Army
Chairman of the State Defence Committee, J. Stalin


Between the years 1941-1942 alone, up to 200,000 Red Army soldiers were executed by the NKVD. However, since Order No. 227, the Battalions were increased in number and men within each increased also. Estimates on how many Red Army prisoner/soldiers, “Deserters” and “Panic-mongers” were executed throughout the war, are estimated between hundreds of thousands to a million… but one cannot truly know the true loss of life under these Orders.


Commenting on Order No. 270, Stalin stated:
“There are no Soviet prisoners of war, only traitors.”


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Stalin’s conviction toward his own orders were demonstrated when [ironically] the “apple of his eye,” Yakov Dzhugashvili – Stalin’s eldest son – who served as an Artillery Officer in the Red Army, was captured by the Wehrmacht (German Army) on 16 July 1941, during the Battle of Smolensk, in the early stages of Operation Barbarossa.


There is debate as to whether Yakov was captured or surrendered, however in 2013, Der Spiegel provided evidence that Yakov had surrendered. A letter written by Dzhugashvili’s Brigade Commissar to the Red Army’s Political Director, quoted by Spiegel, states that after Dzhugashvili’s battery had been bombed by the Germans, he and another soldier initially put on civilian clothing and escaped, but then at some point Dzhugashvili stayed behind, saying that he “wanted to stay and rest.”
Further support to his surrender, was given by his wife during interrogation – pursuant to the Articles of Order 270, upon her arrest – that it was her request that he surrender to stay alive. She repeated this in her Memoirs.


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Other sources suggest that the retreating Yakov Dzhugashvili was handed over to the Germans by his father’s unhappy subjects, the Muzhiks (Russian Peasants), who hated the Kolkhoz system and the Soviet power in general. In the first hours of capture, the panic-stricken young man got rid of his Officer’s insignia and hid among the masses of POW’s. Unfortunately for him he was recognized by one of his former comrades who immediately turned him in.
In either event, whether surrendering or not fighting to the end, was – according to Stalin –  traitorous to the Motherland and attracted severe punishment, even when returned after the war.

Stalin first learned of his son’ capture via a communiqué  received from the Germans, which included a picture of his son with German Officers. Stalin reacted (referring to an earlier suicide attempt by Yakov), “The fool – he couldn’t even shoot himself!” An angry Stalin blamed Yakov for “surrendering like a coward” to the enemy.
The Germans showered the Soviet trenches with leaflets, stating that – with the exception of “NKVD and Commissars” – they promised good treatment for those Red soldiers who surrendered unarmed. Several leaflets featured a photograph of Yakov accompanying the Wehrmacht Officers. Printed on the back of one of the publications was a copy of the letter Yakov had written to his father, which had been forwarded to Stalin;

“Dear Father! I have been taken prisoner. I am in good health. I will soon be sent to a camp for officers in Germany. I am being treated well. I wish you good health. Greetings to everyone. Yasha.”

Yakov was temporarily housed at a guarded villa in Berlin, then several temporary Officers camps, but later transferred to the Sachsenhausen camp.
On January 31, 1943, during the Battle of Stalingrad (August 1942 to February 1943), Generalfeldmarschall Friedrich Paulus was captured by the Red Army, along with 107,000 other Axis Servicemen (only 6,000 were ever seen alive again, by 1955). As Hitler noted that there was no precedent of a Generalfielmarschall ever being captured and kept alive, so he attempted to negotiate the POW trade of Yakov for Freidrich Paulus. Stalin’s response was, “I have no son called Yakov” and, “I will not trade a Marshall for a Lieutenant.”

The circumstances of Yakov’s death a few months later remain unclear, but by the time he reached the Sachsenhausen camp and, given his previous psychological health and repeated suicide attempts, his nerves had deteriorated considerably. He had constant visitors from Berlin seeking translations, radio broadcasts and photographing him, was detested by fellow British POW’s, who often physically fought him (one such occurrence that same day) and he is said to have attempted suicide from the electric perimeter fence of the camp, or had unknowingly wandered toward it, or attempted escape. In any event, he ignored repeated orders to move away from the fence and return to barracks, or he would be shot.
He did not follow the orders and after nearly two years as a POW, he was shot on April 14, 1943.
This was seen by Stalin as a more honorable death and Stalin’s attitude towards his son softened slightly.


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N. Jones is a Writer, Researcher, Historian and Literary Critic.

Stalin’s Order #0428 – A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words… is it Really?


Order # 0428 – the ‘Torch-Men-Order’


Many ask, “How can [so-called] ‘Holocaust Deniers’ and Revisionists, deny the photographic evidence of German Soldiers killing civilians?”
The so-called, proof in pictures…

What is Order #0428 – commonly known as?
‘Torch-Men-Order’
[now confirmed by todays Russian Government]

Stalin’s Order #0428, commanded on the 17th November 1941, declared that Partisans wearing German uniforms, particularly those of the Waffen-SS, were to destroy all settlements within a swathe of about 40 – 60 km depth from the main battle lines and to ruthlessly kill the civilian population. With these tactics it was important to leave a few survivors, who would report the staged “German Atrocities.”
This method of warfare was also confirmed by German soldiers who captured many Jewish-Russian Partisans wearing German uniforms.

Almost daily, reports were being issued by the media, that the German forces advanced with the declared politics and aim of a “Scorched Earth” approach, which devastated the vast Russian lands in the most horrific way.
Apart from the logical fact that no invader destroys the very infrastructure necessary for his advancement in an occupied territory, Germany’s Program, called “Ostacker Programm” (Eastern fields program) was designed to restore the devastated lands.


(Archive Series 429, Rolle 461, General’s Headquarters of the Army, Division, foreign Units East II H 3/70 Fr 6439568. Filed: National Archive Washington)
[1][in progress] “Fackelmänner Befehl” (torch men-order) confirmed.
Russian Security Service FSB published Stalin’s order No. 0428, as follows;


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‘Deutsche Greueltaten’
translation
‘German Atrocities’


“All settlements, in which German troops are found, up to a depth of 40 – 60km from the main lines of battle, are to be destroyed and set on fire, also 20-30km from the roads. For the destruction of the settled areas in the required radius, the air force will be made available, also artillery and rocket-launchers will be used extensively, as well as intelligence units, skiers and Partisan divisions, who are equipped with bottles with flammable liquid. These hunting expeditions in their activities of destruction are to be dressed to the greatest extent in German soldier’s uniforms and uniforms of the Waffen-SS looted from the German army.

This will ignite hatred toward all fascist occupiers and make the conscription of partisans from the outlaying areas of fascist territories easier. It is important to have survivors who will tell about “German atrocities”. For this purpose every regiment is to form hunter-units of about 20- 30 men strong with the task to detonate and incinerate the villages. We have to select brave fighters for this action of destruction of settled areas. These men will be especially recommended to receive bravery awards when working in German uniforms behind enemy lines and destroying those settlement outposts. Among the population we have to spread the rumor that the Germans are burning the villages in order to punish the Partisans.”


If the Jewish Bolsheviks were purposely sacrificing people in these ways, to create anti-German propaganda, there is no doubt they would have photographed these horrors to drive the message home.
No doubt, from this time originate the famous ‘Atrocity Photos’ of mass-executions which are the favourites of the press.
Furthermore, this does not reconcile with the Official ‘Holocaust’ narrative, of the Germans going to great extent to conceal their crimes by burning records and millions of bodies, which is one of the excuses as to why the Allies could not find any evidence to the purported mass gassings of internees. The ‘Official’ narrative would have us believe that the Germans (in the middle of war and Soviet advancement) hunted through millions of documents to dispose of records of killing people – by burning them – but insure they developed hundreds of incriminating photographs to leave behind, accessible for the world to see?

Additionally, with hands tied behind the back and the single shot to the back of the neck/head, was the method and training of the Cheka and NKVD, for singular executions.
As was proven with the Bolshevik crime of the Katyn Forest Massacre.

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The fear and hate hysteria created from imagery, was not just limited to performing in front of the camera… simply manipulating the imagery by superimposing over innocent photo’s for the desired effect, was also utilised… here is just a small example of many.


photoshop propaganda

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N. Jones is a Writer, Researcher, Historian and Literary Critic.

Bolshevik Plan to Conquer All Europe


Former Soviet Military Intelligence Officer, discloses the Bolshevik Plan to invade and conquer all of Europe.



All Bolshevik preparations were for invasion, not defense.

In his book ‘Icebreaker: Who Started the Second World War?’ Viktor Suvorov, who defected to the west in 1978, gives an indepth, detailed look at the origins and development of World War II, but in particular, the background to Hitler’s ‘Operation Barbarossa’ attack against Soviet Russia in June, 1941.

The colloquial view of Germany’s attack, is that it abruptly forced a neutral, non-aggressive Soviet Russia into war. This illogical view also paints that Stalin was surprised and had naively trusted the German Fuhrer.
However, prior to Hitler’s preventative invasion, Court Historians neglect to mention the Red Army’s attack on Finland (November 30, 1939), bombing of Sweden (February 21, 1940), the invasion of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania (June 18, 1940) and that Stalin had forced Romania to surrender Bessarabia [Moldavia] (June 27, 1940).

From evidence and among many other witnesses, Suvorov details the Bolsheviks responsibility for the war’s outbreak and progression. Above all, he details the vast Soviet preparations for an invasion of Europe in the summer of 1941 with the goal of Sovietising Europe.

“For Lenin, as for Marx, world revolution remained the guiding star, and he did not lose sight of this goal. But according to the minimum program, the First World War would only facilitate a revolution in one country. How then, would the world revolution take place thereafter? Lenin gave a clear-cut answer to this question in 1916: “as a result of the second imperialist war”…”

Initially the ‘Union of Soviet Socialist Republics’ was made up of only a handful of constituent republics. Lenin and the other Soviet leaders intended that more republics would be added to the USSR until it encompassed the entire globe. Thus, writes Suvorov, “the declaration accompanying the formation of the USSR was a clear and direct declaration of war on the rest of the world.”


Soviet Preparations

Throughout history, every army has had a basic mission, one that requires corresponding preparations.
An army whose mission is basically defensive is accordingly trained and equipped for defensive war.
It heavily fortifies the country’s frontier areas, and employs its units in echeloned depth.
It builds defensive emplacements and obstacles, lays extensive minefields, and digs tank traps and ditches.
Military vehicles, aircraft, weapons and equipment suitable for defending the country are designed, produced and supplied.
Officers and troops are trained in defense tactics and counter-offensive operations.

An army whose mission is aggressive war acts very differently.
Officers and troops are trained for offensive operations.
They are supplied with weapons and equipment designed for attack, and the frontier area is prepared accordingly.
Troops and their material are massed close to the frontier, obstacles are removed, and minefields are cleared.
Maps of the areas to be invaded are issued to officers, and the troops are briefed on terrain problems, how to deal with the population to be conquered, and so forth.

Carefully examining the equipping, training and deployment of Soviet forces, as well as the numbers and strengths of Soviet weaponry, vehicles, supplies and aircraft, Suvorov establishes in great detail that the Red Army was organized and deployed in the summer of 1941 for attack, not defense.


Peculiar Tanks

ussr-tank-factory-a67xmbGermany entered war in 1939 with 3,195 tanks. As Suvorov points out, this was fewer than a single Soviet factory in Kharkov, operating on a, so-called, “peacetime” basis, was turning out every six months.

By 1941 everyone recognized the ‘Tank’ as the primary weapon of an army of attack in a European land war. During this period, Suvorov shows, the Soviets were producing large quantities of the well armed ‘Mark BT’ tank, predecessor of the famed T34 model. ‘BT’ were the initials for the Russian words “high speed tank.” The first of this series had a top speed of 100 kilometers per hour, impressive even by today’s standards. But as Suvorov goes on to note, this weapon had a peculiarity:

“…Having said so many positive things about the numbers and quality of Soviet tanks, one must note one minor drawback. It was impossible to use these tanks on Soviet territory …Mark BT tanks could only be used in an aggressive war, only in the rear of the enemy and only in a swift offensive operation, in which masses of tanks suddenly burst into enemy territory …”

The Mark BT tanks were quite powerless on Soviet territory. When Hitler began Operation Barbarossa, practically all the Mark BT tanks were cast aside. It was almost impossible to use them off the roads, even with caterpillar tracks. They were never used on wheels. The potential of these tanks was never realized, but it certainly could never have been realized on Soviet territory. The Mark BT was created to operate on foreign territory only and, what is more, only on territory where there were good roads …
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To the question, where could the enormous potential of these Mark BT tanks be successfully realized?… there is only one answer: in central and southern Europe. The only territories where tanks could be used, after their caterpillar tracks were removed, were Germany, France and Belgium … Caterpillar tracks are only a means for reaching foreign territory. For instance, Poland could be crossed on caterpillar tracks which, once the German autobahns had been reached, could then be discarded in favour of wheels, on which operations would then proceed …

It is said that Stalin’s tanks were not ready for war. That was not so. They were not ready for a defensive war on their own territory. They were, however, designed to wage war on others.”


Airborne Assault Corps

Similarly designed for offensive war are paratroops. This most aggressive form of infantry is employed primarily as an invasion force. Germany formed its first airborne assault units in 1936, and by 1939 had 4,000 paratroops.

And the USSR? Suvorov explains: “By the beginning of the war [1939], the Soviet Union had more than one million trained paratroopers — 200 times more than all other countries in the world put together, including Germany… It is quite impossible to use paratroopers in such massive numbers in a defensive war…. No country in history, or indeed all countries in the world put together, including the Soviet Union, has ever had so many paratroopers and air assault landing sub-units as Stalin had in 1941.”

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As part of the planned invasion, in early 1940 orders were given for large-scale construction of airborne assault gliders, which were produced in mass quantity from the spring of 1941 onward. The Soviets also designed and built the remarkable KT “winged tank.” After landing, its wings and tail-piece were discarded, making the KT instantly ready for combat. The author also describes a variety of other offense-oriented units and weapons, and their deployment in June 1941 in areas and jumping-off points right on the frontiers with Germany and Romania. All these weapons of offensive war became instantly useless following the Barbarossa attack, when the Soviets suddenly required defensive weapons.
Suvorov tells of a secret meeting in December 1940, attended by Stalin and other Politburo members at which General Pavel Rychagov, deputy defense minister and commander of the Soviet air force, discussed the details of “special operations in the initial period of war.” He spoke of the necessity of keeping the air force’s preparations secret in order to “catch the whole of the enemy air force on the ground.” Suvorov comments:

“It is quite obvious that it is not possible to ‘catch the whole of the enemy air force on the ground’ in time of war. It is only possible to do so in peacetime, when the enemy does not suspect the danger.
Stalin created so many airborne troops that they could only be used in one situation: after a surprise attack by the Soviet air force on the airfields of the enemy. It would be simply impossible to use hundreds of thousands of airborne troops and thousands of transport aircraft and gliders in any other situation.”

Suvorov also reports on the dismantling in June 1941 of the Soviet frontier defense systems, and the deployment there of masses of troops and armour poised for westward attack.


Stalin Preempted

During the period just prior to the planned Soviet invasion, the USSR’s western military districts were ordered to deploy all 114 divisions, then stationed in the interior, to positions on the frontier. Thus, remarks Suvorov, June 13, 1941, “marks the beginning of the greatest displacement of troops in the history of civilization.”

Such a massive build-up of forces directly on the frontier simply could not be kept secret. As Suvorov notes, Wilhelm Keitel, Field Marshal and Chief of Germany’s armed forces High Command, spoke about the German fears during a postwar interrogation:

“All the preparatory measures we took before spring 1941 were defensive measures against the contingency of a possible attack by the Red Army. Thus the entire war in the East, to a known degree, may be termed a preventive war … We decided … to forestall an attack by Soviet Russia and to destroy its armed forces with a surprise attack. By spring 1941, I had formed the definite opinion that the heavy build-up of Russian troops, and their attack on Germany which would follow, would place us, in both economic and strategic terms, in an exceptionally critical situation … Our attack was the immediate consequence of this threat …”

In 1941, Admiral N. G. Kuznetsov was the Soviet Navy minister, as well as a member of the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist Party. In his postwar memoirs, published in 1966, he recalled:

“For me there is one thing beyond all argument — J. V. Stalin not only did not exclude the possibility of war with Hitler’s Germany, on the contrary, he considered such a war … inevitable … J. V. Stalin made preparations for war … wide and varied preparations — beginning on dates … which he himself had selected. Hitler upset his calculations.”

Suvorov comments:
“In early 1941 the Soviet Union had vastly more paratroops than all other countries combined. Parachutists, by their nature, can only be used in offensive operations.”

The admiral is telling us quite clearly and openly that Stalin considered war inevitable and prepared himself seriously to enter it at a time of his own choosing. In other words, Stalin was preparing to strike the first blow, that is to commit aggression against Germany; but Hitler dealt a preventive blow first and thereby frustrated all Stalin’s plans …

“Let us compare Keitel’s words with those of Kuznetsov. Field Marshal Keitel said that Germany was not preparing an aggression against the Soviet Union; it was the Soviet Union which was preparing the aggression. Germany was simply using a preventive attack to defend itself from an unavoidable aggression. Kuznetsov says the same thing — yes, the Soviet Union was preparing for war and would inevitably have entered into it, but Hitler disrupted these plans with his attack. What I cannot understand is why Keitel was hanged [at Nuremberg], and Kuznetsov was not.”

Suvorov believes that Hitler’s preemptive strike came just two or three weeks before Stalin’s own planned assault. Thus, as Wehrmacht forces smashed Soviet formations in the initial weeks of the ‘Barbarossa’ attack, the Germans marvelled at the great numbers of Soviet tanks and other material destroyed or captured – an enormous build-up sufficient not just for an assault on Germany, but for the conquest of all of Europe. Suvorov writes;

“Hitler decided that it was not worth his while waiting any longer. He was the first to go, without waiting for the blow of the ‘liberating’ dagger to stab him in the back. He had begun the war in the most favourable conditions which could possibly have existed for an aggressor; but given the nature of Stalin’s grand plan, he could never have won it. Even in the most unfavourable conditions, the Red Army was able to ‘liberate’ half of Europe …”

As devastating as it was, Hitler’s assault was not fatal. It came too late to be successful. “Even the Wehrmacht’s surprise attack on the Soviet Union could no longer save Hitler and his empire,” Suvorov writes. “Hitler understood where the greatest danger was coming from, but it was already too late.” With great effort, the Soviets were able to recover from the shattering blow. Stalin succeeded in forming new armies to replace those lost in the second half of 1941.

As Suvorov repeatedly points out, the widely accepted image of World War II, and particularly of the roles of Stalin and Hitler in the conflict, simply does not accord with reality:

“In the end … Poland, for whose liberty the West had supposedly gone to war, ended up with none at all. On the contrary, she was handed over to Stalin, along with the whole of Eastern Europe, including a part of Germany. Even so, there are some people in the West who continue to believe that the West won the Second World War.
Stalin became the absolute ruler of a vast empire hostile to the West, which had been created with the help OF the West. For all that, Stalin was able to preserve his reputation as naive and trusting, while Hitler went down in history as the ultimate aggressor. A multitude of books have been published in the West based on the idea that Stalin was not ready for war while Hitler was.”

Nothing could be further from the truth!



Resource:
The Institute For Historical Review


N. Jones is a Writer, Researcher, Historian and Literary Critic.